A news-breaking account of the worldwide inventory market's subterranean battles, Dark Pools portrays the increase of the "bots" - artificially clever structures that execute trades in milliseconds and use the canopy of darkness to out-maneuver the people who have created them.
In the start used to be Josh Levine, an idealistic programming genius who dreamed of wresting keep an eye on of the industry from the large exchanges that, many times, gave the large associations a bonus over the little man. Levine created a automatic buying and selling hub named Island the place small investors swapped shares, and through the years his invention morphed right into a international digital inventory industry that despatched trillions in capital via an enormous jungle of fiber-optic cables.
By then, the industry that Levine had sought to mend had became the other way up, birthing secretive exchanges known as darkish swimming pools and a brand new species of buying and selling machines that may imagine and that appeared, ominously, to be slipping the regulate in their human masters.
Dark Pools is the interesting tale of ways international markets were hijacked by way of buying and selling robots - many so self-directed that people cannot expect what they will do next.
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Additional info for Dark Pools: High-Speed Traders, A.I. Bandits, and the Threat to the Global Financial System
The Bots have been dominating buying and selling in immense Nasdaq shares akin to Microsoft, Intel, Cisco, and WorldCom. “We have been seeing titanic quantity coming from organisations we’d by no means heard of,” recollects Nasdaq leader economist Frank Hathaway. “It was once coming from those high-frequency enterprises out of the Midwest that we had no event with. We’d touch them, yet that they had no real interest in us. ” It used to be an issue for Nasdaq, because it wasn’t getting paid for the trades—Island used to be. Island mentioned the trades again to Nasdaq, whose liquidity used to be draining quickly, spilling over to Island. The die used to be forged. Nasdaq needed to switch, speedy. the rate investors, with their large volumes, have been within the driver’s seat. Nasdaq must adapt to fit their wishes if it desired to continue to exist. With decimalization, the proven industry makers have been already chucking up the sponge in droves as their earnings evaporated. For Nasdaq, it used to be kill or be killed. Its resolution: a automatic buying and selling community that got here to be often called the ECN Killer. They referred to as it SuperMontage (the market’s publication of purchase and promote orders was once sometimes called a “montage” of orders). And it can spark an epic struggle that unfold from the buying and selling flooring of Wall road to the halls of Capitol Hill. DOUG Atkin stormed out of a gathering on the SEC’s Washington workplace. It used to be October 2001, and the struggle over SuperMontage used to be heating up. The Instinet CEO whipped out his cellphone and hit the rate dial for Matt Andresen. Andresen didn’t decide up, so Atkin left a message. “If you don’t get your fucking ass right down to Washington to assist us struggle SuperMontage,” he stated, “we’re going to chop you off from Instinet. ” It used to be a major probability. If Island couldn’t entry Instinet’s order stream, it'd be lacking out on an important a part of the industry. Watcher investors consistently checked Instinet, because it used to be a very good indication of what the large boys—the Goldmans, the Morgans, the Merrills—were doing of their favourite shares. Atkin’s danger printed how frightened he was once approximately SuperMontage. In layout, SuperMontage used to be a huge digital super-pool. it'll combination the simplest bids and gives through the market—including these on ECNs similar to Island, Archipelago, and Instinet—and put up them in one, large montage that each one investors may entry. the difficulty used to be, SuperMontage wasn’t reasonable, at the very least in response to the ECNs. It gave a choice to rates from Nasdaq marketplace makers. If a Nasdaq marketplace maker and a shopper utilizing Island had an analogous quote, say, a bid to shop for Apple for $20, the Nasdaq marketplace maker will be first in line. That was once a tremendous probability to the ECNs—and they fought again, tough, sending reams of letters to the SEC explaining why SuperMontage used to be a disastrous inspiration. “SuperMontage could, if licensed, impermissibly enable Nasdaq to construct an anti-competitive matching facility,” Atkin wrote in a December 2000 letter. approximately each ECN despatched comparable assault letters to the SEC, aside from one: Island. Levine had taken a difficult examine the structure of SuperMontage, and he’d come to an easy end: It used to be a bust.